Routing protocol | How it works | Routing Mechanism and Types (2023)

Routing protocol | How it works | Routing Mechanism and Types (1)

Introduction to the routing protocol

Emcomputer network, the two main important components are origin and destination. Information needs to be communicated from source to destination from time to time. There are many ways in which data can be transferred. The process of selecting the best route among other routes is known as routing; this can be done using software-programmed devices known as protocols. Standard protocols help to find the best route to ensure good data transfer. Data packets that need to be sent will also be given information to find the best routing protocol.

The main objective ofrouting protocolsis to know all existing network routes and make the right decisions. Some examples of common routing protocols are RIP,EIGRP, IGRP, BGP, ES-ES, etc.,

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(Video) What are Routing Protocols and their Types?

How does the routing protocol work?

Let's understand the concept with a simple example. Let's consider two directly connected networks that are initially set up. The routing table only consists of these networks, and networks other than these two cannot enter it. So how can the router recognize other networks? This can be done in the following ways. Routers use remote network administrators to learn about routing, such as

1. Static Routing

static routing can have a router predefined and installed with a unique route given to the destination. This route has priority over routes chosen bydynamic routingprotocols and destinations within the routing tables are also enforced. This is mostly suitable for medium to large networks because the workload required to run the network is large. Stub networks mostly useStatic Routingprotocols

2. Default Routing

The default routing protocol can be set to the manually defined path that the route should follow when a specific path to the destination is not known. The router to which routing information is sent is known as the gateway of last resort. Default routing is mainly used for small networks.

3. Dynamic Routing

Dynamic routing protocols havepredefined algorithmswho can analyze and choose the ideal path to the destination. This is mainly used due to its adaptability to any type of network topology.

It can also be called one of the most used routing methods. To better understand how it works, it is necessary to have some prior knowledge of some terms, such as convergence and precision.

  • Convergence

In this routing, the routing table used must reflect the exact, accurate and up-to-date informationabout network topologyand the time it takes for the router to reflect a new change in value during routing in the routing table is known as convergence time. A routing protocol with a fast convergence time is preferable because disturbances can occur during the router to calculate networks for the optimal path. An act of approaching a state can also be called where all routing tables have detailed information in a steady state.

  • Precision

The convergence time, which is updated by the router, must reflect exact details about the values, known as precision.

(Video) Routing Introduction & Types of Routing Protocols | CCNA | Networkforyou

routing engine

The routing update mechanism is a process of transferring information between neighboring routers. This can be explained as follows when routing on a given time duration router to advertise its data information via broadcast or multicast. Various routing protocols have various time slots. These routing updates contain information about routing protocols such as AS, AD, array values ​​and interface details.

1. Autonomous system:AS can be defined as a collection of routers with similar routing table information, simply defined as the boundary line for the routing protocol. It can be one-to-one or one-to-many and can also be set to a numeric value. As defined by numbers, an Internet Assigned Numbers Authority provided a range from 1 to 65535

This is of two types.

  • The private autonomous system is used for the internal network.
  • The public autonomous system is used as the backbone of the Internet.

2. Interior gateway protocols:They are used in data transfer to share routing information between routers in the same autonomous system. Some examples of interior gateway protocols are RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and OSPF.

3. External Gateway Protocols:These are used in data transfer to share routing information between routers in different autonomous systems. An example of an external gateway protocol is the border gateway protocol.

4. Administrative distance:AD can be defined as the reliability of routing updates received from the neighboring router. For example, if two updates for the same route are received from two routing protocols, the router will check the best AD value to choose the optimistic route. The AD with the lowest value will have the highest preference.

5. Metric:If two route updates have the same ad value, the metric will appear on the image to calculate the best route. Similar to AD, different routing protocols use different metric values. The routing protocol with the lowest value will be selected. EIGRP example uses bandwidth, MTU, load while RIP uses only hop count as metric value.

types of routing protocols

Routing protocols can be mainly classified into three types. Each of them has its own importance in transferring data. Let's now take a look at each of these protocols in detail.

(Video) Lec-57: What is Routing Protocols | Various types of Routing Protocols

1. Distance vector

This primarily uses distance as a metric value and direction as a vector to select the optimal path to the target network. Basically, the router receives the routing information from neighboring routers, which receive this information from its neighbor router to the destination network. Each neighboring router in the path of a destination network is called a hop. Each time a data packet passes through a router, the hop value is increased and the route with the lowest hop value will be chosen.

Example RIP directly shares an entire routing table with directly connected neighbors.

2. Link State Routing Protocols

The link-state routing protocol uses a complex metric table to choose the best path to the destination network. As its name implies it works in linked format. Use three tables.

  • The first table contains information about directly connected neighbors.
  • The second table deals with the entire network topology.
  • The third table contains the actual path data.

An example is OSPF. This shares its own link with the routers.

3. Hybrid routing protocols

Hybrid routing protocols can be defined as the combination of distance vector and link state protocol. A hybrid routing protocol uses aspects of the distance vector and link state protocol to find a more precise route.

An example of a hybrid routing protocol is EIGRP.


The main objective of the routing protocol is to find a better and more accurate path for the data packet to be transferred from source to destination. Using multiple parameters, such as autonomous system and metric, finds a better path, and all types of protocols have their own advantages and disadvantages. They take different approaches to sharing routing updates and finding the best route.

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This was a guide to the routing protocol. Here we discuss the introduction, understanding, operation, mechanism and types of a routing protocol. You can also check out our other suggested articles for more information:

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(Video) EGP / IGP :: Distance Vector / Link State :: Dynamic Routing Protocols :: OSPF EIGRP BGP RIP IS-IS

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What is routing protocol and it types? ›

Although there are many types of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks: Interior gateway protocols type 1, link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS. Interior gateway protocols type 2, distance-vector routing protocols, such as Routing Information Protocol, RIPv2, IGRP.

What are routing mechanisms? ›

The routing mechanism invokes the appropriate error processor depending on the error code provided by the node abnormal condition program. Groups of one or more error codes are defined in the DFHSNEP macro. Each group is associated with an index (in the range X'01' through X'FF') and an error processor.

What are the 3 types of routing performed by BGP? ›

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

What are basic routing protocols? ›

Overview of Routing Protocols

Some of the most common routing protocols include RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and BGP. There are two primary routing protocol types although many different routing protocols defined with those two types. Link state and distance vector protocols comprise the primary types.

What are the 4 types of routers? ›

They are wired routers, wireless routers, core routers, edge routers and VPN routers.

What are the four basic routing techniques? ›

This article covers the types of static versus dynamic routing protocols and the differences between them.
Four IGPs are the most popular:
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Nov 3, 2015

What are the different types of routes? ›

There are four types of routes. These types are connected route, local route, static route, and dynamic route.

What is BGP and how it works? ›

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet. It manages how packets get routed from network to network through the exchange of routing and reachability information among edge routers.

What is BGP and MPLS? ›

BGP MPLS certification stands for border gateway protocol and Multiprotocol Layer Switching. These are two basic components of internet routing. BGP is a basic routing protocol. Whereas MPLS is used in high-speed networks to route traffic.

What is difference between OSPF and BGP? ›

While BGP excels with dynamic routing for large networks, OSPF offers more efficient path choice and convergence speed. Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, and Open Shortest Path First, or OSPF, are two of the most popular, standards-based dynamic routing protocols used around the world.

How do OSPF and BGP work together? ›

BGP and OSPF work together in a network to provide reachability (that is, routing) information to routers about networks outside the OSPF network. In a provider network, BGP populates the routing table, with the address of the eBGP neighbor, as the next hop for routes to exterior autonomous systems.

Is MPLS a routing protocol? ›

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a protocol-agnostic routing technique designed to speed up and shape traffic flows across enterprise wide area and service provider networks.

How many types of routing are there in networking? ›

Routing is classified into 3 categories: Static Routing. Dynamic Routing. Default Routing.

What is TCP routing protocol? ›

Edit online. A route defines a path for sending packets through the Internet network to an address on another network. A route does not define the complete path, only the path segment from one host to a gateway that can forward packets to a destination (or from one gateway to another).

What are examples of routed protocols? ›

Examples of a routed protocol are IP, IPX, and AppleTalk. Required in such a protocol is an addressing scheme. Based on the addressing scheme, you will be able to identify the network to which a host belongs, in addition to identifying that host on that network.

What is the most common routing protocol used for the Internet? ›

BGP is the routing protocol used on the internet; therefore, the most common enterprise use is to run BGP on your internet edge when connecting to your ISP.

How many router protocols are there? ›

7 types of routing protocols.

What are the 3 modes of router? ›

The router has three command-line modes. There's a User EXEC mode, the Privileged EXEC mode, and the Global Configuration mode.

What are Layer 2 routing protocols? ›

Layer 2 protocols or network L2 protocols are a list of communication protocols used by Layer 2 devices (such as network interface cards (NIC), switches, multiport bridges, etc.) to transfer data in a wide area network, or between one node to another in a local area network.

What is a Type 5 route? ›

Here is definition of Type-5 route (IP prefix Route): An IP prefix route provides encoding for inter-subnet forwarding. In the control plane, EVPN Type-5 routes are used to advertise IP prefixes for inter-subnet connectivity across data centers.

What is routing in networking? ›

Routing is the process of path selection in any network. A computer network is made of many machines, called nodes, and paths or links that connect those nodes. Communication between two nodes in an interconnected network can take place through many different paths.

What is difference between routing and route? ›

In a WAN, routers serve as connection points between sub-networks, more generally referred to as nodes. Routing between sub-networks is guided by a routing table maintained in each end-system. The routing table points to the next device along a route for a packet to take in order to reach a given address.

How many types of BGP are there? ›

There are two types of BGP: internal or iBGP and external eBGP.

Does BGP use TCP or UDP? ›

BGP uses TCP port 179 to communicate with other routers. TCP allows for handling of fragmentation, sequencing, and reliability (acknowledgement and retransmission) of communication packets.

What is Eigrp vs BGP? ›

EIGRP provides the interior data routing, while BGP establishes routing to an outside, or exterior, network, particularly the internet. Interior networks route data using the EIGRP protocol, while communications with exterior ASes and the internet use BGP.

Does MPLS use OSPF? ›

OSPF was modified to support MPLS-TE features. You don't have to run OSPF or IS-IS on your network if you want to run MPLS on it. You can run any routing protocol (RIP, EIGRP, etc)... because what MPLS uses as the source for assigning labels is the information in the routing table, therefore it uses any routing source.

What is MPLS vs IP routing? ›

Difference between MPLS and IP Routing

In MPLS, the switching of traffic is based on the labels assigned to the network packets. While in IP routing, it is based on the destination IP address. In MPLS, a fixed and dedicated path is established for the routing of network packets.

Is MPLS same as Ethernet? ›

At the local level, Ethernet can be provided via Copper, Fiber and Fixed Wireless access links. The main difference between MPLS and Ethernet is that Ethernet is a Layer 2 technology that uses the Ethernet MAC addresses, which are embedded in every computer, to forward traffic.

Can BGP work without OSPF? ›

BGP requires TCP transport since it doesn't have it prepriority mechanisms such as OSPF or EIGRP per say.

Do all routers run BGP? ›

The short answer to this question is NO. You do not need to run BGP on your home or small business router. All Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that have multiple connections to the Internet use BGP to communicate with those other providers.

How many BGP can run on a router? ›

The router supports maximum of 4 BGP instances. Each BGP instance needs a unique router-id. Only one Address Family can be configured under each BGP instance (VPNv4, VPNv6 and RT-Constrain can be configured under multiple BGP instances).

Does OSPF use TCP or UDP? ›

Because OSPF does not use UDP or TCP, the OSPF protocol is fairly elaborate and must reproduce many of the features of a transport protocol to move OSPF messages between routers.

Why is OSPF faster than BGP? ›

Convergence rate: OSPF can achieve convergence (the time a router takes to share and update the latest routing information) faster. In contrast, the BGP has a slow convergence rate. Network topology or design: OSPF is a type of hierarchical network topology or design while BGP is a type of mesh topology or design.

Which port does OSPF use? ›

RIP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its transport protocol, and is assigned the reserved port number 520. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol. OSPF does not use a TCP/IP transport protocol (UDP, TCP), but is encapsulated directly in IP datagrams with protocol number 89.

Is VLAN a routing protocol? ›

In a LAN environment, VLANs divide broadcast domains. When a host in one VLAN must communicate with a host in another VLAN, the traffic must be routed between them. This type of routing is called inter-VLAN routing.

Why BGP is used in MPLS? ›

The PEs in the provider network using MPLS BGP use the Multiprotocol-Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) to dynamically communicate with each other. This MPLS BGP model enhances the efficiency and scalability of routing/forwarding features of the underlying network infrastructure.

What type of routing protocol is OSPF? ›

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that was developed for IP networks and is based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. OSPF is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).

What is the most common type of routing protocol? ›

BGP and OSPF are two of the most common routing protocols. While BGP excels with dynamic routing for large networks, OSPF offers more efficient path choice and convergence speed.

What is RIP OSPF and BGP? ›

OSPF and RIP are Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) and distribute routing information within an autonomous system, whereas BGP is a Exterior Gateway Protocol. The routes learned via the dynamic routing protocols are applied to the kernel routing table.

What is Routing Information Protocol example? ›

Let's look at another example.

Suppose R1 wants to send the data to R4. There are two possible routes to send data from r1 to r2. As both the routes contain the same number of hops, i.e., 3, so RIP will send the data to both the routes simultaneously.

What is BGP vs MPLS? ›

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are two important protocols used in networking. MPLS is a Layer 3 protocol used to route data packets across networks, while BGP is a Layer 4 protocol used for exchanging routing information between different autonomous systems.

What is BGP and why it is used? ›

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is the protocol underlying the global routing system of the internet. It manages how packets get routed from network to network through the exchange of routing and reachability information among edge routers.

How many types of routing protocols are there? ›

7 types of routing protocols
  • Routing information protocol (RIP) ...
  • Interior gateway protocol (IGRP) ...
  • Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP) ...
  • Open shortest path first (OSPF) ...
  • Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) ...
  • Border gateway protocol (BGP) ...
  • Immediate system-to-immediate system (IS-IS)
Feb 3, 2023

Why is OSPF used? ›

OSPF has the following key advantages: Compared with distance-vector routing protocols such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), OSPF is more suitable for serving large, heterogeneous internetworks. OSPF can recalculate the routes in a short amount of time when the network topology changes.

What port does BGP use? ›

BGP neighbors are defined by an IP address. BGP uses TCP port 179 to communicate with other routers.

Why choose BGP over OSPF? ›

Scale: BGP is more flexible and scalable than OSPF and it is also used on a larger network. Preferred path: OSPF is used to determine the fastest route while BGP puts emphasis on determining the best path. Protocol: In OSPF, internet protocol is used. While in BGP, transmission control protocol is used.


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