An overview of post-traumatic stress disorder: definition, causes, and symptoms
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Today we're going to talk about themAn overview of PTSD: definition, causes and symptoms.The Psychology Roots Counseling Center works hard to bring you authentic and up-to-date materials on counseling and psychotherapy. stay withCounseling Center for Psychological Roots.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental illness that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. PTSD symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of triggers, and feelings of guilt or shame. PTSD can have a significant impact on a person's daily life and relationships. In this section, we provide an overview of the definition, causes, and symptoms of PTSD, as well as information on diagnostic and treatment options.
Which helps with PTSD and complex PTSD
There are two specific interventions that are generally recommended when a child or adolescent is diagnosed with PTSD: trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy and eye movement desensitization and processing. Research has consistently found these to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, that doesn't mean they work for all children with PTSD, and some research suggests other approaches may be effective as well.
There is much less research on what interventions are effective for complex PTSD, but there is increasing evidence that what works for PTSD is likely to be effective for complex PTSD as well, but potentially more sessions and more focus on developing one trusting relationship required.
Magazine Traumatic Stress
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Changes in thoughts and moods
The way you think about yourself and about life can change after a traumatic event. The things you tell yourself about your world can also be different.
For a diagnosis of PTSD, two or more of these symptoms must be present for a month or more:
- not remembering important aspects of the event or not remembering the event at all
- intense negative beliefs about yourself, others, and the world in general
- Excessive guilt and self-blame for what happened, mainly due tocognitive distortions
- intense negative emotions such as horror and fear
- Significantly reduced interest in socializing and participating in your usual activities
- feel separated from other people
- an inability to enjoy things and have positive emotions
PTSD can make you feel more sensitive to negativity than you were before. It can also make you feel different about yourself, others, or the world around you.
Depending on what happened, you may feel like you're not good at making decisions or that you shouldn't trust anyone anymore. You may also think that you could have prevented the trauma if you had done something differently.
Criterion F: Duration of symptoms
Even if a person meets all the necessary criteria, a PTSD diagnosis requires the persistence of symptoms for more than a month.
A person may meet all criteria immediately after a traumatic event, but have fewer or no required symptoms two weeks after the event. Even if the criteria existed for a period of time, the individual would not meet the persistence requirement.
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Treatment after the ptsd dsm
The treatment of PTSD has changed over the years as our understanding of the condition has improved. The latest DSM-PTSD, published in 2013, reflects these changes and provides guidance on how best to manage patients with the disorder.
There are several different treatment options for PTSD, and the most effective approach will vary from person to person. However, some of the more common treatments include:
–Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: This type of therapy helps patients identify and change negative thought patterns that may be contributing to their symptoms.
–rehab: This therapy consists of gradually exposing patients to situations or memories that trigger their anxiety in order to help them cope bettertriggers.
-Medications: A variety of different medications can be used to treat the symptoms of PTSD, such as: B. antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications andsleepHOW.
If you or someone you know has PTSD, it's important to seek professional help. A qualified psychiatrist can help you understand your diagnosis and develop a treatment plan that is right for you. With the right treatment, many people with PTSD can live happy and fulfilling lives.
Section III: New measures and models
It includes dimensional measures for assessing symptoms, criteria for culturally formulating disorders, and an alternative proposal for conceptualizing personality disorders, as well as a description of the disorders currently being studied. Presents selected diagnostic examination tools and techniques. , taking into account the sociocultural context, and also presents a hybrid-dimensional-categorical model of personality disorders. A distinction was made between specific personalities and non-specific disorders.
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Criterion C: Avoidance Symptoms
The third criterion for a PTSD diagnosis is avoidance of memories of the trauma.
This could be an avoidance of thoughts or feelings about the event, or a complete avoidance of trauma-related memories. A person who has been sexually assaulted can avoid thoughts and feelings related to the assault and do their best never to think about the event.
Someone who has witnessed a drowning can avoid trauma-related memories and stay away from swimming pools or bodies of water, for example.
Military veterans may avoid depictions of violence to avoid being reminded of their own trauma. The presence of at least one of these symptoms is required to diagnose PTSD.
Factor structure of competing PTSD models
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Mesa4shows the fit indices for each model. The DSM-5 PTSD-6Y and the 4-factor dysphoria model were "excellent-fit" models according to RMSEA, while all other models were "good-fit" models. None of the models met the minimum requirements for a good fit according to CFI or TLI. BIC showed that the two alternative 4-factor models, the dysphoria model and the PTSD-6Y, outperformed the other models but were indistinguishable from each other. However, after a MIMIC model was run to account for the impact of covariates on these relationships, neither model met the minimum requirement of a good model fit.
Table 4 Fit indices for the five PTSD models
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Controversy over borderline personality disorder
In 2003, the National Association for Advances in Treatment and Research for Personality Disorders lobbied to change the name and label ofBorderline Personality Disorderim DSM-5. PapierHow the Defense Reveals BPDreported that “the name BPD is misleading, fails to convey and endorse relevant or descriptive informationStigmaInstead, he suggested the name "emotion regulation disorder" or "emotion dysregulation disorder." There has also been discussion of changing borderline personality disorder, an Axis II diagnosis, to an Axis I diagnosis.
The TARA-APD recommendations do not appear to have affected the American Psychiatric Association, the editor of the DSM. As mentioned above, the DSM-5 does not use a multi-axis diagnostic scheme, so the distinction between axis I and axis II disorders no longer exists in the DSM.Nosology. The name, diagnostic criteria, and description of borderline personality disorder remain largely unchangedDSM-IV-TR.
Criterion B: Intrusive symptoms
Not everyonethose who are exposed to a traumatic event develop PTSD. For a person to receive a PTSD diagnosis, the DSM-V requires that the person exhibit at least one intrusive symptom.
Intrusive symptoms can manifest in the following ways:
- sudden and disturbing memories
- Flashbacks to the traumatic event
- Emotional stress after memories of the traumatic event
- Physical reactivity after memories of the traumatic event
While the intrusive symptoms of PTSD can vary, here are some of the most common.
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British Psychological Society response
IsBritish Psychological SocietyIn his June 2011 response to draft versions of the DSM-5, he stated that he had "more concerns than applause". He criticized the proposed diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' all based on subjective judgements...not value-free but rather reflecting current normative social expectations", and expressed doubts about their reliability, validity and value existing diagnoses. Criteria that personality disorders are not standardized in the general population and that "unspecified" categories covered a "huge" 30% of all personality disorders.
He also expressed his grave concern that "clients and the general public are being adversely affected by the ongoing and ongoing medicalization of their natural and normal responses to their experiences...which call for help but reflect less of an illness than a normal individual." variations. .
The Society suggested as its main specific recommendation to move from using "diagnostic frames" to a description based on a person's specific experienced problems, and that mental disorders are better studied as part of a spectrum with which they are shared willnormal:
Many of the same criticisms also led to the development of theHierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology, an alternative dimensional framework for classifying mental disorders.
What is Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
It has long been recognized that some people's reactions to traumatic events transcend previous definitions of PTSD. The DSM-5 takes this into account with its above-mentioned broad approach. In contrast, ICD-11's approach was to formally define a new diagnosis of complex PTSD. According to ICD-11, complex PTSD consists of the same core symptoms of PTSD but has three additional groups of symptoms:
- affect regulatory issues
- Beliefs about oneself as diminished, defeated, or worthless, accompanied by feelings of shame, guilt, or failure related to the traumatic event
- Difficulty maintaining relationships and feeling close to others.
Research has shown that the diagnosis of complex PTSD can be applied to children and adolescents. In one study, 40% of participants in a PTSD treatment study had high levels of additional symptoms required for complex PTSD.
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Criterion E: Changes in arousal and reactivity
PTSD diagnoses can require a significant change in arousal and reactivity. This change in arousal and responsiveness must have occurred or worsened after the traumatic event and may include at least two symptoms from the following list:
Increased irritability and aggression, either verbally or physically.
Engage in risky or self-destructive behavior
Difficult to focus
Increased startle response
What is the definition of trauma?
Trauma is an emotional or physical response to one or more physically harmful or life-threatening events or circumstances that have a lasting negative impact on your mental and physical well-being, according to theAdministration of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services.
This could be an event that you have experienced personally, witnessed to someone else, heard about it happening to a close family member, or heard aboutthrough your work.
Visit Psych Centrals for more information and support toolsFinding a way through the traumaResource.
IsPTSD SymptomsThey are divided into four main groups:
- cognition and mood changes
- physical responsiveness
After a traumatic event, you may experience at least one of these intrusion symptoms:
- intrusive reminders of what happened
- Anxiety when you remember the incident.
- physiciststress reactionssuch as increased heart rate and blood pressure
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Criterion D: Physical reactivity
Criterion D states that a person can exhibit at least two of the following negative mood or cognition changes.
Difficulty remembering details about the event.
Persistent, negative beliefs about yourself, others, or the world at large.
Blame yourself for the occurrence of the event
Persistent "negative emotional state," such as sadness, anger, or fear
Feeling separated from others.
Inability to experience positive emotions.
Criterion E: Changes in arousal and reactivity
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A diagnosis of PTSD requires the presence of at least two of the following symptoms that started or worsened after the stressor:
- irritability or aggressiveness
- Risky or destructive behavior.
- Increased startle response
- Difficulty concentrating or sleeping problems.
These changes in arousal and reactivity are adefense mechanismto prevent further trauma.
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What is PTSD?
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, series of events, or set of circumstances. A person may find this emotionally or physically damaging or life threatening and may affect mental, physical, social and/or spiritual well-being. Examples are natural disasters, major accidents, terrorist attacks, war/fight, rape/sexual assault, historical trauma, dating violence and stalking,
PTSD has historically been known by many names, including shell shock during the World War I years and combat fatigue after World War II, but PTSD is not unique to war veterans. PTSD can affect anyone, regardless of race, nationality, or culture, and at any age. PTSD affects about 3.5 percent of American adults each year. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in adolescents aged 13 to 18 years is 8%. It is estimated that one in 11 people will be diagnosed with PTSD in their lifetime. Women are twice as likely as men to have PTSD. Three ethnic groups, US Latinos, African Americans, and Native American/Alaska Native Americans are disproportionately affected and have higher rates of PTSD than white non-Latinos.
Is PTSD acute or chronic?
Colonel Philip Holcombe] So the difference between acute and chronic PTSD is the timing of symptoms. So if the symptoms last less than four weeks but longer than two days, we diagnose it as acute PTSD. If the symptoms last more than four weeks, we call itchronic PTSD.
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My client has panic attacks and PTSD, what should I do?
Many people with PTSD also experience panic attacks. If they only have panic attacks in response to memories of the trauma, or if the memory of the trauma is triggered, this would not meet the criteria for panic disorder as such, but if they also have panic attacks out of the blue, it could be diagnostic separated if the other criteria are also met. This is useful to know because you can approach the problem a little differently.
Also keep in mind that people use the term panic attack differently. Stress and physiological arousal in response to memories are common symptoms of PTSD, and people can panic. However, a panic attack also involves a catastrophic misreading of panic symptoms. For example, someone sees a person who looks like their ex-partner who attacked them and physiological arousal is triggered. You feel hot and sweaty and your heart rate increases. So far, this is typical of PTSD. However, if they then think there must be something wrong with my heart, I will have a heart attack and die, triggering the panic cycle, the fear caused by the trigger turns into a panic attack caused by the misinterpretation disastrously fueled.
Many people with PTSD experience panic attacks, but not everyone meets the criteria for further diagnosis of panic disorder
Physical and emotional arousal in response to memories of the trauma are symptoms of PTSD and can progress into a panic attack in some people when thoughts of catastrophe also occur
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Causes Symptoms Dsm Treatment
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition, Post-Traumatic Stress DisorderIt is essentially characterized by the development of certain symptoms after exposure to a traumatic event.The onset of PTSD varies in different individuals: some experience primarily anxiety-based emotional and behavioral symptoms while others fall into dysphoric moods, and some individuals may develop arousal and reactive externalizing symptoms while others experience primarily dissociative symptoms. It's also possible for a person to have a combination of these symptoms.
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PTSD Prevalence and Gender
Based on data from the 2017 National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study, an estimated 3.6% of US adults reported experiencing PTSD in the past year. The prevalence tends to be higher in women than in men.
For example, female veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past PTSD compared to female civilians and males.Veterans. Women are also more likely to experiencedomestic violence, which can put them at higher risk of developing PTSD.
Of those with PTSD, an estimated 36% were severely impaired, 33% moderately impaired, and 30% mildly impaired.² Impairments may include trouble sleeping, anxiety, flashbacks to the trauma, hypersensitivity or heightened alertness, emotional detachment, and difficulty with daily tasks. including work and socializing.
Reactivity symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder
After a traumatic event, you may notice changes in the way you respond to certain situations. These symptoms may appear after the event and then worsen.
Two or more symptoms from this list must be present:
- Irritable behavior and unprovoked anger that may involve physical or verbal outbursts
- Behavior that may endanger your safety
- Be hyper vigilant or alert to your surroundings
- overreact when you are afraid
- Difficulty concentrating and focusing on a task
- changes in sleep patterns
Being able to recognize threats is part of our survival instinct. However, if you suffer from PTSD, you may find that you are more sensitive to potential threats than you were before. He might even see threats where he hadn't seen them before.
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Changes in cognition and mood
You may notice changes in your mood or the way you process information after a traumatic event.
This can include:
Experts are learning more and more about the nature of trauma. As such, there were several significant changes between the DSM-4 and the DSM-5.
- more specific language about what constitutes trauma
- four groups of symptoms instead of the previous three
- a new subtype for children under the age of 6 called the PTSD preschool subtype
- a second subtype for those who frequently dissociate orDepersonalisation/Derealisation, called the dissociative subtype of PTSD
In DSM-4, your reaction to a traumatic event was factored into the diagnosis—that is, whether you felt overwhelming fear, helplessness, or horror.
In the DSM-5 this iscriteria removedbecause many have felt that it is such a common symptom that you cannot accurately predict whether you will develop PTSD.
In addition to PTSD, other disorders also fall under trauma and stress-related disorders in the DSM-5. They include: