Wer war Charles Darwin?
Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist and biologist known for his theory of evolution and his understanding of the process of natural selection. In 1831 he undertook a five-year circumnavigation with the HMSBeagle, during this time his studies of various plants and still led him to formulate his theories. In 1859 he published his history bookAbout the origin of species.
Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in the small market town of Shrewsbury, England. A wealthy and privileged boy who loved exploring the great outdoors, Darwin was the second youngest of six children.
Darwin came from a long line of scientists: his father, Dr. R.W. Darwin was a doctor and his grandfather, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, was a well-known botanist. Darwin's mother, Susanna, died when he was only eight years old.
His father expected him to follow in his footsteps and become a doctor, but the sight of blood made Darwin dizzy. His father suggested becoming a minister, but Darwin was much more inclined to study natural history.
While Darwin was at Christ's College, botany professor John Stevens Henslow became his mentor. After Darwin graduated from Christ's College with a Bachelor of Arts in 1831, Henslow recommended him for a post as a naturalist aboard HMS.Beagle.
The ship, commanded by Captain Robert FitzRoy, was to embark on a five-year voyage of reconnaissance around the world. The trip would be the opportunity of a lifetime for the budding young naturalist.
HMS 27 December 1831BeagleWith Darwin on board, he embarked on his voyage around the world. Over the course of the voyage, Darwin collected a wide variety of natural specimens, including birds, plants, and fossils.
Darwin on the Galapagos
Through practical research and experimentation, he had a unique opportunity to look closely at the principles of botany, geology, and zoology. The Pacific Islands and the Galapagos Archipelago were of particular interest to Darwin, as was South America.
On his return to England in 1836, Darwin began to apply his knowledge to theresearch journal, published as part of Captain FitzRoy's larger narrative and later edited intoZoology of the Beagle Voyage.
The voyage had a monumental effect on Darwin's view of natural history. He began to develop a revolutionary theory of the origin of living things that contradicted the conventional wisdom of other naturalists of the time.
Darwin's theory of evolution held that species survived through a process called "natural selection," in which those that successfully adapted or evolved to meet the changing demands of their natural habitat thrived and reproduced, while other species that did not evolve and evolved did not reproduce, died.
Through his observations and studies of birds, plants, and fossils, Darwin found similarities between species around the world, along with variations based on specific locations, leading him to believe that the species we know today were gradually evolving from common ones ancestors developed.
Darwin's theory of evolution and the process of natural selection later became known simply as "Darwinism".
At the time, other naturalists believed that all species arose at the beginning of the world or arose throughout natural history. In any case, they believed that the species remained largely the same over time.
'Origin of Species'
In 1858, after years of scientific research, Darwin publicly presented his revolutionary theory of evolution in a letter delivered to a meeting of theLinnaean society. On November 24, 1859, he published a detailed explanation of his theory in his best-known work,On the origin of species through natural selection.
For the next century, DNA studies provided scientific evidence for Darwin's theory of evolution. However, the controversy surrounding their conflict with creationism, the religious view that all nature was born of God, is still present among some people today.
social darwinismIt is a collection of ideas that emerged in the late 19th century and adopted Darwin's theory of evolution to explain social and economic problems.
Darwin himself rarely commented on any connection between his theories and human society. But while trying to explain his ideas to the public, Darwin borrowed widely held concepts like "survival of the fittest" from sociologist Herbert Spencer.
Over time, like thatIndustrial Revolutionjlet doCapitalism spread across the world, social Darwinism was used as a justification for imperialism, labor abuse, poverty, racism,eugenicsand social inequality.
After a lifetime of dedicated research, Charles Darwin died on April 19, 1882 at his family home, Down House, in London. He was buried thereWestminster Abbey.
More than a century latermourningOrnithologist Richard Brum attempted to revive Darwin's lesser-known theory of sexual selectionThe evolution of beauty.
While Darwin's original attempts to cite aesthetic mating decisions by females as a driving force for evolution have been criticized, Brum made a powerful argument through his experience with birds and won the selection forLos New York Times' List of the 10 best books of 2017.
- Name: Charles Darwin
- Year of birth: 1809
- Date of Birth: February 12, 1809
- Geburt: Shrewsbury
- Country of birth: England
- Male gender
- Best Known For: Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who developed a theory of evolution based on natural selection. His views and "social Darwinism" remain controversial.
- The industry
- science and medicine
- University of Edinburgh
- Interesting data
- Although Charles Darwin originally went to college to be a doctor, he changed careers when he found he couldn't stand the sight of blood.
- Charles Darwin had a mountain in Tierra del Fuego named after him for his 25th birthday, Mount Darwin. The monumental gift was delivered by Captain FitzRoy.
- Year of death: 1882
- Todesdatum: 19. April 1882
- City of Death: Downe
- Todesland: England
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- Article title: Biography of Charles Darwin
- Autor: Biography.com Publishers
- Website Name: The Biography.com website
- URL: https://www.biography.com/scientists/charles-darwin
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- Publisher: A&E; TV channel
- Last updated: March 29, 2021
- Initial Release Date: April 3, 2014
- A man who dares to waste an hour has not discovered the value of life.
- [How great is the] difference between wild and civilized man, it is greater than between a wild animal and [a] domesticated animal.
- If all humans were dead, apes would make humans. Men make angels.
- I'm an absolute millionaire in weird and quaint little facts.
- Multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die.
- Because the shield can be just as important for victory as the sword or the spear.
- I see no good reason why the opinions expressed in this volume should shake anyone's religious feelings." [On 'The Origin of Species']
- A grain in the scales can determine which individuals will live and which will die, which varieties or species will increase in number, and which will decline or eventually become extinct.
- If a complex organ could be shown to exist that could not have been formed by numerous, successive, minor modifications, my theory would collapse completely. But I can't find such a case.
- The extinction of species and groups of species, which has played such a prominent role in the history of the organic world, follows almost inevitably from the principle of natural selection.
- There is greatness in this vision of life... from such a simple beginning infinitely more beautiful and wondrous forms have been and continue to be evolved.
The love for all living creatures is the most noble attribute of man. It is not the strongest of the species that survives, not the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.What was Darwin's famous quote? ›
1. "A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life." 2. "Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but the history of science shows that fortunately, this power does not long endure."What book of answer did Darwin read in 1838 and realize the importance of natural selection in evolution? ›
In 1838, Darwin read Malthus' essay and came to realize that all plant and animal populations have this same potential to rapidly increase their numbers unless they are constantly kept in check by predators, diseases, and limitations in food, water, and other resources that are essential for survival.What did Charles Darwin explain in his book? ›
Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. The book presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.What are some quotes about the theory of evolution? ›
“The theory of evolution is quite rightly called the greatest unifying theory in biology.” “Evolution is amazingly versatile in adapting the materials at hand to other uses.” “Believing as I do in evolution, I merely believe that it is the method by which God created, and is still creating, life on earth.”What were Charles Darwin's 4 main points? ›
- Variation. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. ...
- Inheritance. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. ...
- High rate of population growth. ...
- Differential survival and reproduction.
Darwin was proposing that life began, not in the open ocean, but in a smaller body of water on land, which was rich in chemicals. This is in essence the primordial soup idea, but with one advantage: in a pool, any dissolved chemicals would become concentrated when water evaporated in the heat of the day.What is Darwin's best known theory? ›
Natural Selection. The theory of natural selection was explored by 19th-century naturalist Charles Darwin. Natural selection explains how genetic traits of a species may change over time. This may lead to speciation, the formation of a distinct new species.What are 2 important points of Darwin's book on the origin of species? ›
Darwin's thesis included two key points: Various groups of creatures develop from one or a few common ancestors. Natural selection is the process by which this evolution occurs.In what book ____ Charles Darwin proposes the theory of natural selection? ›
1859: Darwin Published On the Origin of Species, Proposing Continual Evolution of Species. The first printing of Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, sold out in a matter of days.
What were the two main points that Darwin made in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of natural selection? ›
Darwin's theory consisted of two main points; 1) diverse groups of animals evolve from one or a few common ancestors; 2) the mechanism by which this evolution takes place is natural selection.What is an example of Darwin's theory of evolution? ›
Consider the giraffe, for example. A Darwinian theory of evolution posits that it was through random variation that some giraffes had longer necks than others. Thanks to their long necks, they were able to reach leaves high up in the trees in their environment.What is Darwin's law? ›
Darwin's law of natural selection implies that a population in equilibrium with its environment under natural selection will have a phenotype which maximizes the fitness locally.What is a famous quote about theory? ›
- “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. ...
- “Man is so intelligent that he feels impelled to invent theories to account for what happens in the world. ...
- “Just because an apple falls one hundred times out of a hundred does not mean it will fall on the hundred and first.”
All existing creatures, he argued, descended from a small number of original or progenitor species. Darwin compared the history of life to a great tree, its trunk representing these few common ancestors and an extensive system of branches and twigs symbolizing the great variety of life that has evolved from them.What is a quote about theory? ›
“Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.” “How empty is theory in the presence of fact!”What are the 5 concepts of Darwin's theory? ›
In fact, it is so simple that it can be broken down into five basic steps, abbreviated here as VISTA: Variation, Inheritance, Selection, Time and Adaptation.What was Charles Darwin's main goal? ›
Darwin's goal was to study the natural history of the areas they were to explore. The observations he made during the five-year trip led him to wonder how new species developed. To explain this process Darwin formed his theory of natural selection.Is evolution a fact or a theory? ›
Evolution is both a fact and a theory. Evolution is widely observable in laboratory and natural populations as they change over time. The fact that we need annual flu vaccines is one example of observable evolution.What is a famous quote that changed the world? ›
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” “Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake.” “That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
- “The cosmos is within us. ...
- “Those who do not move, do not notice their chains.” ...
- “It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it.”
Although Darwin's theory of natural selection was basically correct, in the late 1860s he proposed a theory that was very wrong. That theory—”pangenesis”—was an attempt to explain variation among individuals in a species.What did Darwin believe about humans? ›
In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love.What did Charles Darwin say about death? ›
According to his children, Darwin—a doting family man at a time when active fathers were rare—spoke these words to his wife Emma shortly before dying: “I am not the least afraid of death. Remember what a good wife you have been to me.How do we know evolution is true? ›
The Fossil Record
This evidence attests to the fact that there has been a tremendous variety of living things. Some extinct species had traits that were transitional between major groups of organisms. Their existence confirms that species are not fixed but can evolve into other species over time.
Charles Darwin not only did not coin the phrase “survival of the fittest” (the phrase was invented by Herbert Spencer), but he argued against it.Which two statements best summarize Darwin's theory? ›
The two general ideas of Darwin's Theory are evolution and natural selection.What were Darwin's two main conclusions? ›
Darwin proposed that species can change over time, that new species come from pre-existing species, and that all species share a common ancestor.What are Darwin's two major theories explain? ›
The ability to adapt and be chosen by nature is what leads to fitness. Therefore, Natural selection and Branching descent are considered to be the two key concepts of the Darwinian theory of evolution.How did Charles Darwin explain natural selection? ›
Darwin and other scientists of his day argued that a process much like artificial selection happened in nature, without any human intervention. He argued that natural selection explained how a wide variety of life forms developed over time from a single common ancestor.
Experimenting with artificial selection in pigeons gave him a way to study how far a species could change. By artificially selecting features - crossing birds with particular characteristics to generate different offspring - he gathered valuable evidence for evolution by natural selection.When did Charles Darwin describe natural selection? ›
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) are jointly credited with coming up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, having co-published on it in 1858. Darwin has generally overshadowed Wallace since the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, however.What two ideas influenced Darwin? ›
Darwin was influenced by other early thinkers, including Lamarck, Lyell, and Malthus. Darwin was also influenced by his knowledge of artificial selection. Wallace's paper on evolution confirmed Darwin's ideas.What are the 2 animals that Darwin famously studies while discovering his theories? ›
His discoveries included four different species of giant ground sloth (some of the largest land mammals ever to have lived), a gomphothere and the remains of an extinct horse. Many of Darwin's fossils survive, at the Museum and elsewhere.What were Darwin's two main insights about evolution? ›
The first was that all organisms have descended with modification from common ancestors. The second was that the major agent of modification is natural selection acting on variation between individuals.What was Charles Darwin's famous quote? ›
“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, not the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.”What was Charles Darwin's quote? ›
1. "A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life." 2. "Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but the history of science shows that fortunately, this power does not long endure."Is Darwin's theory still used today? ›
Even though On the Origin of Species was written 150 years ago, Charles Darwin's ideas are still considered to be the foundations for the theory of evolution and natural selection.Is Darwin's theory of evolution accepted? ›
And while today it is accepted by virtually all scientists, evolutionary theory still is rejected by many Americans, often because it conflicts with their religious beliefs about divine creation.What are 2 examples of evolution today? ›
Squirrels, mosquitoes, and other organisms evolving in response to climate change. Fish evolving in response to pollutants. Bedbugs evolving resistance to pesticides.
Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.What did Darwin say to Gumball? ›
In "The Safety", Gumball steps on Darwin's foot and Darwin yells "OH YOU-", after that a picture of a mother, then a farmer shown bucking hay, a picture of a donkey, then a picture of a clown is shown.What did Darwin say about life? ›
Darwin believed all the life on Earth developed gradually over millions of years from a few common ancestors. The Darwin mission will survey 1000 of the closest stars, looking for small, rocky planets which are the most likely places for life to develop — at least as we know it.What is the quote from the autobiography of Charles Darwin? ›
“I have steadily endeavoured to keep my mind free, so as to give up any hypothesis, however much beloved (and I cannot resist forming one on every subject), as soon as facts are shown to be opposed to it.”What was Charles Darwin's most famous book called? ›
The name of the famous book written by Charles Darwin is “The Origin of Species”What were the famous last words of Darwin? ›
According to his children, Darwin—a doting family man at a time when active fathers were rare—spoke these words to his wife Emma shortly before dying: “I am not the least afraid of death. Remember what a good wife you have been to me.Did Darwin kiss Gumball? ›
Darwin is jealous of Penny for taking all of Gumball's attention and does everything he can to get between the two of them so that he can have Gumball all to himself: Darwin kisses Gumball on the cheek, imagines a time with him very reminiscent of a date, urges him to embrace him and attempts a Spaghetti Kiss on him, ...What did Darwin say about the soul? ›
Charles Darwin wrote the book "The Origin of Species" which also displays the theological views. He was a religious person and he believed that souls existed as there is the existence of God who possesses all the supreme powers and he is only the lawgiver.What did Darwin say humans evolved from? ›
Singh's statement, Darwin did not say that humans directly evolved from apes. He merely pointed out the similarities between birds, fishes, mammals and reptiles and suggested that all life is related. This, in turn, means that all complex life forms evolved from simpler ones through various genetic mutations.What is the quote of social Darwinism? ›
With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health.
Darwin's theory of evolution, also called Darwinism, can be further divided into 5 parts: "evolution as such", common descent, gradualism, population speciation, and natural selection.What is the theme of Charles Darwin? ›
Darwin's theory of natural selection presents evolution as an inherently positive progression of the natural world, with each species continually moving toward perfect adaptation.Why is Charles Darwin's book important? ›
Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species has been called the most important book ever written. Introducing the theory of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's book fundamentally altered how scientists look at the natural world, and continues to frame biological research today.What is the current theory of evolution? ›
The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species? are related and gradually change over time. Evolution relies on there being genetic variation? in a population which affects the physical characteristics (phenotype) of an organism.How many books did Darwin write on evolution? ›
Since the Creating the Origin and Darwin's Evidence units of the Edited Manuscripts lead to Darwin's fifteen books, the first edition and significant subsequent editions are given here.